For a few decades, a number of studies have been conducted about job satisfaction and its components (Dogan, 2009). Many researchers and administrators have noticed the significance of job satisfaction on a variety of organizational variables (Dogan, 2009), and not surprisingly has been the focus of a great deal of attention in the field of industrial and organizational psychology (Mueller, Hattrup and Hausmann, 2009). Job satisfaction amongst teachers is a multifaceted construct that is critical to teacher retention and has been shown to be an important determinant of teacher commitment, and in turn, a contributor to organizational (Judge and Robbins, 2010) or school (Bull, 2005) effectiveness. Shan (1998), reports that many researchers have revealed wide ranging differences in what contributes to job satisfaction (Bull, 2005). In particular, we know that teachers are one of the most important people for every nation’s future. Thus, understanding the factors that contributes to job dissatisfaction and designing interventions to retain employees in existing positions is especially important, given that many organizations, education sector in particular, are facing critical shortage of qualified teachers (Gormley and kennerly, 2011, Dogan, 2009). The aim of this study is to (1) explore factors contributing to job satisfaction for employees in education sector, (2) examine significant differences between high school teachers’ job satisfaction in Malawi and Taiwan and (3) examine the relationship between National culture and Job Satisfaction.
Definition of Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction is an affective reaction to one’s job, resulting from the incumbent’s comparison of actual outcomes with those that are desired, expected, deserved and so on (Weiss, 2002). In other words, it is an affective orientation that an employee has towards his or her work (Dogan, 2009). Locke (1969) also defined job satisfaction as the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as achieving or facilitating one’s job. Shortly, job satisfaction is an affective reaction to one’s work (Skaalvik and Skaalvik, 2009). Furthermore, Job satisfaction is described as a positive feeling about job, resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics (Judge and Robbins, 2010). According to Hattrup, Mueller, and Joens, (2007) job satisfaction represents a fundamental relationship between the individual and his or her work life, reflecting the interaction of basic values and beliefs about the meaning of work and the reality of work as experienced.
Measuring Job Satisfaction
According to Judge and Robbins, 2010, there are two approaches that are widely used to measure Job Satisfaction namely Single global rating and summation score. According to them, single global rating is a method used by asking respondents few general questions for example “All things considered, how satisfied are you with your job?” Respondents will then circle a number between 1 to 5 (very dissatisfied to Very satisfied). Summation score, which is simply the summation of all job facets is a little bit more sophisticated as it identifies the key elements of the job and ask employees how they feel about each facet. Judge and Robbins (2010) argue that although single global rating is cost effective and not time consuming giving enough time for managers to work on other things, it gives less accurate results as compared to summation score method. This is because summation method looks at not only one facet of satisfaction which helps managers to be able to single out where problem exist, making it easier to deal with unhappy or dissatisfied employees (judge & Robbins, 2010).
Levels of Job Satisfaction
Research shows that the level of job satisfaction varies from facet to facet (e.g. Judge and Robbins, 2010). Judge and Robbins (2010) report that people are more satisfied with their jobs overall, work itself, supervisors and coworkers than with their pay and promotion opportunities. This clearly shows that pay alone is less likely to create a satisfying work atmosphere. It is also argued that employees with high level of satisfaction tend to have positive feelings about their job, whereas dissatisfied employees tend to hold negative feelings.
Causes of Job Satisfaction
A variety of factors can influence a person’s level of satisfaction depending on how he or she feels about the job facets. For example, according to Hattrup, Mueller and Joens, (2007) Job satisfaction occurs when individuals receive outcomes that they value, and dissatisfaction occur when individuals fail to receive what they value. According to Judge and Robins, (2010) major job satisfaction facets (work itself, pay, advancement opportunities, supervision, and coworkers), enjoying the work is always the most strongly correlated with high levels of overall job satisfaction. Barling et al (2003) explains that most employees tend to be satisfied by interesting jobs that provide training, variety, independence, and control. In other words, jobs that are challenging and stimulating satisfy most of the employees than those that are predictable and routine (Judge and Robbins, 2010).
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